The Problem of Studying Ex Libris

In introducing my new novel, writer Ryan O’Neill places it most succinctly:

That is an introduction to a novel you’ll by no means learn.

He provides swiftly that he’s referring to not the e book in your arms, the one he hopes you’re about to start, however the novel that impressed his phrases, the novel he learn.

The cover of Ex Libris

The novel in query is Ex Libris and no matter which copy you learn it accommodates twelve chapters that may be shuffled into any order. The variety of variations attainable with such a construction is a bit over 479 million. It has been revealed in each commonplace paperback and e-book editions, every copy a newly shuffled order of chapters distinctive to that replicate alone. The manuscript that Ryan learn with a view to create his introduction is completely different to the completed copy now in his possession, which is in flip completely different from each different copy ever made.

I’ve written about Ex Libris beforehand the place I famous that this sort of storytelling has its precedents, probably the most important of which all hail from the Nineteen Sixties. Nanni Balestrini’s Tristano was conceived and written utilizing early laptop programming to randomise its content material between copies, although it wasn’t revealed as meant till print expertise had caught up in 2007. Different related books had been housed in a field, both as free leaves (Composition No. 1 by Marc Saporta) or as chapter booklets (The Unfortunates by B. S. Johnson). Of those, Johnson’s novel supplied probably the most direct affect on the construction of Ex Libris: the fluid items of the story are outlined not arbitrarily by the dimensions of the web page, however by the narrative itself. The story is damaged into discrete, significant parts that mix to type a bigger image.

What Ryan alludes to in his opening assertion is that any work structured on this approach presents a problem to crucial studying. How can readers universalise their expertise if the texts they learn are by no means constant? You could disagree with another person’s studying of a textual content, however you achieve this on the basic understanding that each of you will have not less than learn the identical phrases in the identical order. John Bryant’s scholarship on textual fluidity by way of editions, translations, and diversifications demonstrates that texts are by no means as concrete as we’d assume. However variation between editions is a good distance from a story that modifications by design between particular person copies. Though it’s attainable to rearrange Ex Libris in approximate chronological order (some occasions within the story clearly occur earlier than others), every of the novel’s fluid chapters is a vignette, depending on the others for context, however not for prior data. I’ve used the analogy of a jigsaw puzzle to elucidate this to readers: smaller narratives hyperlink collectively to type a bigger image. The order during which the items are positioned modifications the person’s progress however doesn’t change the final word image.

Workflow - The Problem of Studying Ex Libris

The coding to compile completed print-ready recordsdata is finished in Automator, the pc equal of a Rube Goldberg machine.

It may be tough to get previous the construction itself and the arithmetic behind it as many up to date and newer critiques of recombinant works display. Umberto Eco in his introduction to Tristano, focuses nearly solely on the novel’s variety of permutations with solely a cursory nod to the story. This is perhaps comprehensible for a novel that, although lovely, has a intentionally tenuous grip on character, plot, and setting. However the identical strategy is repeated in critiques of Saporta, Johnson, and different related works. It’s as if the flashy acrobatics of the novel’s bodily building obscure what the writers are doing inside. And the critics’ ensuing performative bewilderment or pithy dismissal of a wacky experiment appear to me like missed alternatives.

When the assumed shared expertise of an viewers is modified or eliminated altogether, how does their engagement with a story change? Some clues could also be present in my very own expertise on each side of the reader/author divide. How I initially learn and thought of a fluid novel like The Unfortunates, for instance, could be very completely different to how I’ve come to consider Ex Libris and that change in perspective has been illuminating.

My expertise with The Unfortunates suggests {that a} first studying looms giant in a single’s notion of story. Whereas studying, I needed to preserve reminding myself that the intelligent positioning of two adjoining scenes was attributable not solely to the writer’s craft but in addition to sheer happenstance. We’re skilled to learn tales as linear and it’s a tough behavior to interrupt. Once I return to The Unfortunates as we speak, irrespective of what number of instances I reshuffle its contents, the story is at all times colored by that first studying and the way the chapters initially unfolded. That first studying has change into my definitive model of the novel from which all others deviate.

Readers of Ex Libris could have an analogous expertise, maybe moreso given their copy can’t be bodily reconstructed. Info that colors the notion of the characters and their actions could come earlier or later and its affect will undoubtedly shift. Readers who see extra of a selected character earlier, for instance, could centre the story round them in a approach others received’t. A number of of the fluid chapters additionally include essential items of data that change a personality’s picture or motivation and forged occasions elsewhere within the story in a unique mild. Reviewing the chapter order for every copy, I steadily take note of the place these chapters fall, questioning how their exact location modifications the tenor of the story.

I say I’m wondering as a result of, primarily, I need to depend on guesswork. My notion of the novel just isn’t of a puzzle however of narrative items in fixed movement, a real fluid state. As I labored on it, Ex Libris fashioned a form of internet, a set of interlocking shorter narratives that fed into a bigger complicated. For me there can by no means be a definitive model of the story, solely discrete narrative chunks that cross-reference, echo, or distinction, however by no means line up exactly.

Not like The Unfortunates which may be endlessly reshuffled, Ex Libris is offered to the reader as a single, fastened manifestation of the narrative. However it’s additionally a window, a viewport by way of which you would possibly catch a glimpse of what I see. With out the capability to bodily manipulate pages, the reader should as an alternative think about that fluid state and the variations in emphasis that include modifications in how the story unfolds. With Ex Libris, like with all fluid texts, a crucial studying ought to regard not solely the textual content because it’s offered, but in addition with the textual content in each conceivable different model. The success or in any other case of anybody model of the narrative is merely a subset of almost half a billion attainable narratives within the combination. Although tough to completely conceive, that is one thing I believe many readers instinctively know. A standard response from those that have completed the novel is to hunt out different readers to match notes.

However what readers who squint to catch glimpses of the writer’s view could not realise is that they’ve skilled the story in a approach I can’t. I can forged a watch over any variety of variations of my story, however I can by no means see the circulate of a linear narrative, solely a single path operating by way of that fluid internet of chapters. For higher or for worse I can by no means have the expertise I had studying The Unfortunates.

I believe that’s why the story that emerged turned out much more self-reflexive than I had initially meant. Perhaps it was inevitable {that a} narrative that includes a band of literary misfits reconstructing a library from fragments in a dystopian world would ultimately flip in on itself, a touch upon how fiction can change into a automobile for revealing how we assemble our personal truths. In the identical approach the story’s characters can by no means really attain the writer, so too a reader’s and author’s experiences at all times stay tantalisingly out of attain for one another.

 

Ex Libris is out now.

 

Reference

Bryant, J., 2005. The Fluid Textual content. Ann Arbor: College of Michigan Press.

The submit The Problem of Studying Ex Libris appeared first on The Writing Platform.

find the cost of your paper

Is Huge Information Corrupting the U.S. Election Course of?

As the 2020 election cycle ramps up, voters can expect a flurry of targeted advertisements fueled by big data on their doorsteps, inboxes and social media feeds. While microtargeting based on demographic information is not a new trend in campaign strategy, campaigns traditionally relied on analyzing voter behavior within broader categories such as age or gender before big data was easily accessible.

Contributor
Molly Kozlowski

立中式速繪 動態姿勢繪圖技巧 ポーズが描ければ 動きも描ける たてなか流クイックスケッチ


作者: 立中順平  
出版社:楓書坊 |譯者: 游若琪
出版日期:2020/09/30
ISBN:9789863776314
規格:平裝 / 217頁 / 19 x 25.7 x 1.08 cm / 普通級 / 部份全彩 / 初版
定價:420元|優惠價:79折332元
購買請點我【 博客來書店
▲從部落格連接至博客來購買商品▲
部落格會獲得一些回饋金,幫助我挖更多坑。謝謝。
◆注意,如果有瀏覽器有安裝檔廣告的程式 連接AP 有可能失效◆ 

●本書特色
  ◎從心態及觀念養成開始,1-5分鐘,新手也能立馬上手的「立中式速繪教學」。
  ◎58部插圖教學影片免費下載,新手可一步步反覆學習,書末更附有作品集供創作者參考。
  ◎3大章節、逾200張速繪圖,講解觀察人物技巧、速繪重點及提升風格的小撇步。
速繪人物的基礎三堂課:
  ➊ 建立正確的心態
  不要想畫「正確」,而是要「輕鬆地多畫一些」,
  所謂的觀察力,只是「知識」和「經驗」的累積,
  熟悉自然就會,真的畫不出來的時候,只觀察也行。
  因為#魅力十足的圖,和技巧或常識毫無關係。#
  藉由觀察獲得的經驗和記憶,會轉換成「現實感」並活在作品中。
  不斷畫速繪,就能培養出短時間內掌握特徵的能力。
 
  ➋ 練習簡單畫全身的速繪技巧▁▁火柴人練習
  ⑴ 將全身分成15個部位,
  用2D畫全身,
  「頭 部、胸部、骨盤」是橢圓形。
  「上臂、下臂、大腿、小腿、手、腳」是線條。
  用D字形畫胸廓、軀幹和髖部,塑造印象,
  部位和部位之間留下空白,
  就能輕鬆畫出姿勢。
 
  ⑵ 注意基本結構,不要注意輪廓和細節
  看全身:那個人在做什麼?你有什麼感覺?
  看部位:位置和傾斜度?有什麼功用?
  簡單大膽地畫,鎖定在動作和使用身體的方式。
 
  ⑶ 立體化
  畫出火柴人的2D表現方式,稱作Shape,
  接下來要把平面添加立體的資訊,
  讓Shape有厚度(深度),
  只要畫出縱向的中心線,以及表示膨度的橫向曲線,
  就能變成有厚度和方向性的立體物。
 
  ⑷ 創造不對稱平衡
  全身的節奏和動線是一種流線感。
  盡量避免線條左右對稱,
  大原則是:弧線的對面必然是直線。
 
  ➌掌握印象,最後的風格和情緒添加
  這個人正在做¬「什麼」(動作)?他有「什麼樣」的感受(感情)?
  動作和感情,就是本書所說的動態。
  習慣用少量線條畫全身的思考方式後,就加入動線(flow)的觀點吧!
  不同的曲線會流暢地引導視線。
  彎度深的曲線會用慢節奏,彎度淺的曲線會用快節奏來引導視線。
  將線條加上粗細,就會產生強弱,成為更有趣味性的圖。
 
  本書從心態建立到步驟教學,
  不到20秒就能完成一幅速繪,
  附上58張速繪插圖影片,
  從空白至完稿,一筆一畫的繪畫過程全呈現,
  供學習者一遍一遍觀看臨摹,
  零基礎也沒問題。
 
  每次畫的速繪都是僅有一次的體驗,
  是當下你所能畫出的線條所構成的,
  請輕鬆享受速繪的樂趣吧!
 
◆作者簡介    
立中順平    
  日本岡山縣人。
  1993年開始在Disney Animation Japan擔任動畫師。
  後來進入Answer Studio,目前是自由工作者。
 
  曾參與《跳跳虎歷險記》(Disney)、《棒球大聯盟》(電視版)、《鑽石王牌》、《YURI !!!on ICE》、《佐賀偶像是傳奇》等作品。
 
  目前以動作作畫導演的身分參與各個作品的製作,是負責運動動畫動作表現的資深動畫師。
▼黑介紹
由曾經在華特迪士尼動畫工作室與日本動畫公司Answer Studio的日本資深動畫師立中順平撰寫的速繪教學書
教學主張「不要只在意正確,而是要畫出具有魅力的人物。」
在正確的觀念下,不斷的練習速繪,來培養出掌握特徵的能力。
本書分3個章節
第一章節:速繪繪畫 P1-73.
1-1:速繪的觀念介紹
1-2:速繪人物的重點
1-3:掌握印象
第二章節:繪畫技巧P75-145.
2-1:速繪的各種技巧
2-2:身體局部與衣服
2-3:邁向下一步,動態的掌握
第三章節:速繪作品集P151-218.
收錄立中老師3年來的速繪作品。
▼黑書評
多數速寫教學書都很吃繪畫基礎,在沒有人物基礎的前提下會很難入門。
本書教學另闢蹊徑在以沒有基礎的前提下,講解如何學習速繪
內文資訊量雖然大,但搭配簡化好上手的範例
對新手來說比較好入門,實際操作也不會太挫折
推薦給想讓人物動態更有魅力的學習者們~
這本很不錯用~~~

Design College students’ Summer season Break

With summer break fast approaching, graphic design students like me are trying to figure out productive ways to spend their time. Work for money? Work for experience? Summer classes?

I’ve spent the past few months doing everything I can to
find an internship this summer. Finding a company that isn’t an MLM and will
actually pay good money for your design work is tough. Luckily, graphic design
is a field that’s in demand, so there are a lot of good options out there.

The other option for getting design experience during the summer
break is freelance work, but that comes with its own slew of issues. There’s
nothing worse than beginning to work with a client and getting excited for a
project just for them to look at you with a face like the Surprised Pikachu Meme
when you start to discuss cost.

With two weeks left in the semester, here’s hoping we figure
something out soon!