The element titanium occurs on earth as titanium (IV) oxide and is found mostly in the mineral called rutile. Rutile is abundant in beach sands in Australia and South Africa. For titanium to be useful, rutile has to be processed to obtain the basic metal form of titanium. Although the process is costly, titanium is gaining popularity as a material for various equipment due to its strength and light weight. One such application is in sports equipment. Explain the chemical process of manufacturing the metal form of titanium

Question 1

Di-lithium is composed of two lithium atoms. Which of the following statements regarding di-lithium or lithium is FALSE?

 They oxidize very slowly in air.
 They remain in the solid state even after getting fragmented.
 Their temperature exceeds the boiling point of water during their reaction to water.
 The hydrogen dissipates into the surrounding environment when reacting to water.

 

Question 2

A fruit processing company has a permit to discharge their process wastewater to irrigate an adjacent farmland. Their permit limits the pH of the discharge to 7.0. If the wastewater is 1000 times more acidic than the limit, what is the current pH of the water?

 5.0
 3.0
 4.0
 2.0

Question 3

You are the environmental health and safety (EHS) professional of a microelectronics company who just got informed that approximately 2.8 liters (2,800 ml) of aqua regia was spilled at the company’s on-site laboratory. The EHS professional, after checking into this spill found that the exact chemicals involved are:

 700 ml of HCl and 2.1 liters of HNO3.
 700 ml of HNO3 and 2.1 liters of HCl.
 933 ml of HNO3 and 1.87 liters of HCl.
 933 ml of HCl and 1.87 liters of HNO3.

Question 4

Which of the following acids is present in soft drinks?

 Hydrofluoric acid
 Glacial acetic acid
 Phosphoric acid
 Oxalic acid

Question 5

A common product of hydrolysis when some substances react with water is hydrogen chloride. Which of the following water reactive substances does NOT produce hydrogen chloride?

 Acetyl chloride
 Chlorine dioxide (hydrate)
 Chromium oxychloride
 Lithium hypochlorite

Question 6

Aluminum phosphide can be used as a fumigant for almond and pistachio nuts. When aluminum phosphide is shipped, the description will be: __________.

Question 7

The manager of a medium-sized office hired a fire-prevention specialist to give the annual fire training for their employees. In a pre-test of the audience, the specialist said that lithium, sodium, and potassium fires cannot be extinguished effectively by a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher. The reaction of these metals with carbon dioxide will produce __________ and __________.

Question 8

__________, which is considered a weak acid, reacts with the components of glass, so it is transported in polyethylene or other acid resistant plastic containers.

Question 9

A paramedic responded to an apartment emergency call where a young boy inadvertently swallowed a corrosive (low pH) material. As an initial action, the paramedic could neutralize the kid’s stomach with Philips’ Milk of Magnesia, a form of magnesium __________.

Question 10

__________ is a colorless liquid that is mainly used as a chlorinating and dehydrating agent. When it reacts with water, a gaseous hydrochloric acid and aqueous sulfuric acid are produced.

Question 11

The element titanium occurs on earth as titanium (IV) oxide and is found mostly in the mineral called rutile. Rutile is abundant in beach sands in Australia and South Africa. For titanium to be useful, rutile has to be processed to obtain the basic metal form of titanium. Although the process is costly, titanium is gaining popularity as a material for various equipment due to its strength and light weight. One such application is in sports equipment.

  1. Explain the chemical process of manufacturing the metal form of titanium.
  2. Explain why titanium is a good choice of material for golf clubs. When not in use, discuss at least one precaution to observe when storing clubs?
  3. During the fabrication of golf clubs, finely divided titanium is generated, which poses a dangerous risk of fire and explosion. Explain the chemical process involved.

Your total response must be at least 200 words in length.

Question 12

A truck transporting concentrated acetic acid was involved in a non-injury accident resulting in the release of 300 gallons of acid. Part of the mitigation is to neutralize the spilled acid with a solid material such as air-slaked lime. Air-slaked lime is a commercially available product that consists of calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate. Quicklime is the common name for calcium hydroxide. When quicklime is exposed to moist air, it absorbs atmospheric CO2 and forms calcium carbonate.

  1. Show the chemical formula of air-slaked lime. Explain the chemical interaction involved with the use of air-slaked lime to neutralize the acid. Is this an effective neutralization method for this release?
  2. Explain why OSHA requires employers to limit employee exposure to acetic acid vapors.

Your total response must be at least 200 words in length.

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