Stemming, Part 15: Morphological Suffix

Now on to steps two and three. Here we strip off a bunch of morphological

What Is a Morphological Suffix?

A morphological suffix changes a word from one part of speech to
another. These can be joined together almost infinitely:

  • sense (verb)
  • sense + -ate = sensate (adjective)
  • sensate + -tion = sensation (noun)
  • sensation + al = sensational (adjective)
  • sensational + -ly = sensationally (adverb)
  • sensational + -ize = sensationalize (verb)

You get the idea. We could play this all day.

(I should drop in a warning here. The derivations above are purely
morphological. I’m not making any statement about how a word developed
historically or how it came into the language. There, I feel better. Thanks
for putting up with my moment of pedantry.)

There are a set of rules to how morphological suffixes can be combined. You
can’t just stick sensation and -ize together to make a verb. Also,
different morphological suffixes change the stem’s root in different ways.
Sense + -ate (sensate) is very different than sense + -ible
(sensible), even though both -ate and -ible turn sense into an

The Porter stemmer leverages these rules to test for two different sets of
endings in two different steps. The two steps are structured almost
identically as two large cond-ends? expressions. In each case, they test for
an ending, and if it is found, they replace it with another ending using r.
The r function only makes the change if the word has an internal consonant
cluster inside the stem. If it doesn’t have an internal consonant cluster, the
ending is assumed to be part of the word and left alone.

For example, step 1c changes sensationally to sensationalli. Step 2
changes sensationalli to sensational.

On the other hand, the name calli, which also ends in -alli, should not be
truncated to cal. Because the stemmer only truncates the ending if the stem
has an internal consonant cluster, which calli does not, calli is left the
way it is.

Our Functions for Today

Today, we’ll look at the functions for steps 2 and 3. As I said before, they
are almost structurally identical, so I’ll show them both and comment on them

(defn step-2
  (cond-ends? st stemmer
              "ational" (r st stemmer "ate")
              "tional" (r st stemmer "tion")
              "enci" (r st stemmer "ence")
              "anci" (r st stemmer "ance")
              "izer" (r st stemmer "ize")
              "bli" (r st stemmer "ble")
              "alli" (r st stemmer "al")
              "entli" (r st stemmer "ent")
              "eli" (r st stemmer "e")
              "ousli" (r st stemmer "ous")
              "ization" (r st stemmer "ize")
              "ation" (r st stemmer "ate")
              "ator" (r st stemmer "ate")
              "alism" (r st stemmer "al")
              "iveness" (r st stemmer "ive")
              "fulness" (r st stemmer "ful")
              "ousness" (r st stemmer "ous")
              "fulness" (r st stemmer "ful")
              "ousness" (r st stemmer "ous")
              "aliti" (r st stemmer "al")
              "iviti" (r st stemmer "ive")
              "biliti" (r st stemmer "ble")
              "logi" (r st stemmer "log")))

(defn step-3
  "deals with -ic-, -full, -ness, etc., using
  a similar strategy to step-2."
  (cond-ends? st stemmer
              "icate" (r st stemmer "ic")
              "ative" (r st stemmer "")
              "alize" (r st stemmer "al")
              "iciti" (r st stemmer "ic")
              "ical" (r st stemmer "ic")
              "ful" (r st stemmer "")
              "ness" (r st stemmer "")))

These are nothing but cond-ends?. Each tests the input stemmer for a series
of endings, and on the first ending found, it tests for an internal consonant
cluster and changes the ending. If either of those conditions are false, the
original stemmer is returned.

Possible Improvements

One obvious improvement would be to make a macro that takes an input stemmer
and a sequence of ending/replacement pairs. It would expand into the
cond-ends? above. It might look something like:

(replace-ending stemmer
                "icate" "ic"
                "ative" ""
                "alize" "al"
                "iciti" "ic"
                "ful" ""
                "ness" "")

I’ll leave that as an exercise to the reader.

In the next posting, we’ll look at stem 4, which is slightly different than
steps 2 and 3.

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Sep 13, Grand Remembrances

Today is Grandparents Day in the United States. Being a Grand is a special honor. I feel very blessed that my wife and I have two grandchildren. We were able to visit them today. Yes, we are still being cautious with the coronavirus, but we also find it very difficult to not see them when they live so close. So today we did drop by to visit Jacob (age 10) and Sophia (age 7) along with their parents. We brought donuts and caught up with them. Our grandchildren are still pretty young and this is a precious time in their lives – and ours!

I wish I had known my grandparents better. We never lived in the same place. Dad was a career Air Force pilot, so we moved around a lot. But we did get to see them once in a while when they would visit us, or we them.

A Plague of Giants

There are five known magical ‘kennings’ or types: air, water, fire, earth, and plants. Each nation specializes in of these kennings, and the magic influences the society. There’s a big pitfall with this diversity of ability and locale–not everyone gets along.

Enter the Hathrim giants, or ‘lavaborn’ whose kenning is fire. Where they live the trees that fuel their fire are long gone, but the giants are definitely not welcome anywhere else. They’re big, they’re violent, and they’re ruthless. When a volcano erupts and they are forced to evacuate, they take the opportunity to relocate. They don’t care that it’s in a place where they aren’t wanted.

I first read Kevin Hearne’s Iron Druid books and loved them (also the quirky The Tales of Pell), so was curious about this new venture, starting with A PLAGUE OF GIANTS. Think Avatar: The Last Airbender meets Jim Butcher’s Codex Alera series. Elemental magic, a variety of races, different lands. And it’s all thrown at you from page one.

But this story is told a little differently. It starts at the end of the war, after a difficult victory, and a bard with earth kenning uses his magic to re-tell the story of the war to a city of refugees. And it’s this movement back and forth in time and between key players in this war that we get a singularly grand view of the war as a whole. Hearne uses this method to great effect.

There are so many interesting characters in this book that I can’t cover them all here. Often in books like this such a large cast of ‘main’ character can make the storytelling suffer, especially since they don’t have a lot of interaction with each other for the first 3/4 of the book–but it doesn’t suffer, thankfully. And the characterization is good enough, despite these short bursts, that by the end we understand these people and care about what happens to them.

If there were a main character it would be Dervan, a historian who is assigned to record (also spy on?) the bard’s stories. He finds himself caught up in machinations he feels unfit to survive. Fintan is the bard from another country, who at first is rather mysterious and his true personality is hidden by the stories he tells; it takes a while to understand him. Gorin Mogen is the leader of the Hathrim giants who decide to find a new land to settle. He’s hard to like, but as far as villains go, you understand his motivations and he can be even a little convincing. There’s Abhi, the son of hunters, who decides hunting isn’t the life for him–and unexpectedly finds himself on a quest for the sixth kenning. And Gondel Vedd, a scholar of linguistics who finds himself tasked with finding a way to communicate with a race of giants never seen before (definitely not Hathrim) and stumbles onto a mystery no one could have guessed: there may be a seventh kenning.

There are other characters, but what makes them all interesting is that they’re regular people (well, maybe not Gorin Mogen or the viceroy–he’s a piece of work) who become heroes in their own little ways, whether it’s the teenage girl who isn’t afraid to share vital information, to the scholars who suddenly find how crucial their minds are to the survival of a nation, to the humble public servants who find bravery when they need it most. This is a story of loss, love, redemption, courage, unity, and overcoming despair to not give up. All very human experiences by simple people who do extraordinary things.

Hearne’s worldbuilding is engaging. He doesn’t bottle feed you, at first it feels like drinking from a hydrant, but then you settle in and pick up things along the way. Then he shows you stuff with a punch to the gut. This is no fluffy world with simple magic without price. All the magic has a price, and more often than not it leads you straight to death’s door. For most people just the seeking of the magic will kill you. I particularly enjoyed the scenes with Ahbi and his discovery of the sixth kenning and everything associated with it. But giants? I mean, really? It isn’t bad enough fighting people who can control fire that you have to add that they’re twice the size of normal people? For Hearne if it’s war, the stakes are pretty high, and it gets ugly.

The benefit of the storytelling style is that the book, despite its length, moves along steadily (Hearne is no novice, here). The bits of story lead you along without annoying cliffhangers (mostly), and I never got bored with the switch between characters. It was easy to move between them, and they were recognizable enough that I got lost or confused. The end of the novel felt a little abrupt, but I guess that has more to do with I was ready for the story to continue, despite the exiting climax.

If you’re looking for epic fantasy with fun storytelling and clever worldbuilding, check out A PLAGUE OF GIANTS.

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The Artwork Of Gary Choo

Gary Choo is a concept artist/illustrator based in Singapore. I’ve know Gary for a good many years ( 17, actually ), working together in animation studios in Singapore like Silicon Illusions and Lucasfilm. Gary currently runs an art team at Mighty Bear Games, but when time allows he also draws covers for Marvel comics, and they’re amazing –

The Art Of Gary Choo
The Art Of Gary Choo
The Art Of Gary Choo
The Art Of Gary Choo
The Art Of Gary Choo

To see more of Gary’s work or to engage him for freelance work, head down to his ArtStation.

The post The Art Of Gary Choo appeared first on Halcyon Realms – Art Book Reviews – Anime, Manga, Film, Photography.