“Evidence-based review”?

I got an e–mail this morning from Environmental Research Letters (ERL) proudly announcing that they now publish “evidence-based reviews.”

I was initially stunned, then horrified by their choice of language. If their reviews are “evidence-based” what are everyone else’s? I always understood that for something to be science, it had to be based on evidence! The alternative to an “evidence-based review” is a review not based in evidence? But by definition, that would not be science—it would be science fiction.

It seems that what ERL may be emphasizing is more along the lines of meta-analysis, in which the review is a formal quantitative analysis of specific data-sets. If so, yes, that is different than qualitative or conceptual analysis of existing knowledge and understanding. If you want to know how much the Earth’s temperature has increased over the last 50 years, there are many datasets to synthesize, and a conclusion must use a formal analytical structure that provides clear rules for what is included or excluded. But that is no more “evidence-based” than a “traditional” review that synthesizes existing understanding of a topic. I’ve written a number of such reviews and I maintain that they are deeply “evidence-based;” I’m sure that the reviewers and editors who handled those papers would agree.

So why did the ERL Editor’s choose the term “evidence-based review”? A term so loaded that I’ve been stewing over it for hours and that it motivated me to write a blog post?

I can postulate three, not mutually exclusive, hypotheses. First, but I suspect least likely, is that they did intend to disparage the more traditional conceptual approach to synthesizing knowledge and literature. Perhaps the editors feel that this approach is too subject to individual interpretation. But all datasets are subject to interpretation and that is what peer review is for: to ensure that contributions are robust, sound, and accurately reflect the evidence.

More likely would be that they simply fell into a “Curse of Knowledge” trap—they knew what they meant by “evidence-based,” and did not see that it might be viewed differently by others. Such problems plague communication and are hard to avoid because it is hard to know what others know and think.

I have more sympathy for this explanation, but only a little because this should have been easy to foresee and avoid. If you create a new category of “evidence-based” review, you obviously and explicitly suggest the existence of “non-evidence-based” reviews—something I never dreamed could exist until I got ERL’s e-mail. This is a form of “othering” that I find very problematic. I can only hope that the Editors of ERL were looking for a simple, positive term to define a new category of reviews, and didn’t adequately consider the implications of their language choice.

My third hypothesis recognizes that ERLs Editor-in-Chief is Dr. Daniel Kammen. Dr. Kammen is an eminent scientist who works extensively at the interface of environmental policy. In the U.S., there is increasing focus in policy decisions to distinguish inputs that are based on real evidence vs. those based on the pure opinion. ERL is a journal that aims to publish science that will be relevant to environmental policy decisions. Hence, perhaps there is a need to more effectively identify science as being evidence-based. So voilà: “evidence-based reviews”! In the Journal of Public Policy, I wouldn’t object to this, because in policy the distinction between data-based vs. expert opinion based input is important.

But if that hypothesis is correct, the appropriate response for ERL, a pure science journal, should not be to flag some publications as being “evidence-based,” and so to suggest that there is an alternative (are they going to have evidence-based research papers?), but to more effectively highlight that “If it isn’t evidence-based, it isn’t science” and that ERL only publishes science.

I can believe that the decision to use the term “evidence-based” might reflect Dr. Kammen’s experience at the science-policy interface in the era of “Fake News.” If this is true, though, I am still deeply disappointed in the journal’s choice of terminology. I very much hope that ERL will find a better, more suitable term to describe what they are looking for.


 

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Sep 13, Grand Remembrances

Today is Grandparents Day in the United States. Being a Grand is a special honor. I feel very blessed that my wife and I have two grandchildren. We were able to visit them today. Yes, we are still being cautious with the coronavirus, but we also find it very difficult to not see them when they live so close. So today we did drop by to visit Jacob (age 10) and Sophia (age 7) along with their parents. We brought donuts and caught up with them. Our grandchildren are still pretty young and this is a precious time in their lives – and ours!

I wish I had known my grandparents better. We never lived in the same place. Dad was a career Air Force pilot, so we moved around a lot. But we did get to see them once in a while when they would visit us, or we them.

A Plague of Giants

There are five known magical ‘kennings’ or types: air, water, fire, earth, and plants. Each nation specializes in of these kennings, and the magic influences the society. There’s a big pitfall with this diversity of ability and locale–not everyone gets along.

Enter the Hathrim giants, or ‘lavaborn’ whose kenning is fire. Where they live the trees that fuel their fire are long gone, but the giants are definitely not welcome anywhere else. They’re big, they’re violent, and they’re ruthless. When a volcano erupts and they are forced to evacuate, they take the opportunity to relocate. They don’t care that it’s in a place where they aren’t wanted.

I first read Kevin Hearne’s Iron Druid books and loved them (also the quirky The Tales of Pell), so was curious about this new venture, starting with A PLAGUE OF GIANTS. Think Avatar: The Last Airbender meets Jim Butcher’s Codex Alera series. Elemental magic, a variety of races, different lands. And it’s all thrown at you from page one.

But this story is told a little differently. It starts at the end of the war, after a difficult victory, and a bard with earth kenning uses his magic to re-tell the story of the war to a city of refugees. And it’s this movement back and forth in time and between key players in this war that we get a singularly grand view of the war as a whole. Hearne uses this method to great effect.

There are so many interesting characters in this book that I can’t cover them all here. Often in books like this such a large cast of ‘main’ character can make the storytelling suffer, especially since they don’t have a lot of interaction with each other for the first 3/4 of the book–but it doesn’t suffer, thankfully. And the characterization is good enough, despite these short bursts, that by the end we understand these people and care about what happens to them.

If there were a main character it would be Dervan, a historian who is assigned to record (also spy on?) the bard’s stories. He finds himself caught up in machinations he feels unfit to survive. Fintan is the bard from another country, who at first is rather mysterious and his true personality is hidden by the stories he tells; it takes a while to understand him. Gorin Mogen is the leader of the Hathrim giants who decide to find a new land to settle. He’s hard to like, but as far as villains go, you understand his motivations and he can be even a little convincing. There’s Abhi, the son of hunters, who decides hunting isn’t the life for him–and unexpectedly finds himself on a quest for the sixth kenning. And Gondel Vedd, a scholar of linguistics who finds himself tasked with finding a way to communicate with a race of giants never seen before (definitely not Hathrim) and stumbles onto a mystery no one could have guessed: there may be a seventh kenning.

There are other characters, but what makes them all interesting is that they’re regular people (well, maybe not Gorin Mogen or the viceroy–he’s a piece of work) who become heroes in their own little ways, whether it’s the teenage girl who isn’t afraid to share vital information, to the scholars who suddenly find how crucial their minds are to the survival of a nation, to the humble public servants who find bravery when they need it most. This is a story of loss, love, redemption, courage, unity, and overcoming despair to not give up. All very human experiences by simple people who do extraordinary things.

Hearne’s worldbuilding is engaging. He doesn’t bottle feed you, at first it feels like drinking from a hydrant, but then you settle in and pick up things along the way. Then he shows you stuff with a punch to the gut. This is no fluffy world with simple magic without price. All the magic has a price, and more often than not it leads you straight to death’s door. For most people just the seeking of the magic will kill you. I particularly enjoyed the scenes with Ahbi and his discovery of the sixth kenning and everything associated with it. But giants? I mean, really? It isn’t bad enough fighting people who can control fire that you have to add that they’re twice the size of normal people? For Hearne if it’s war, the stakes are pretty high, and it gets ugly.

The benefit of the storytelling style is that the book, despite its length, moves along steadily (Hearne is no novice, here). The bits of story lead you along without annoying cliffhangers (mostly), and I never got bored with the switch between characters. It was easy to move between them, and they were recognizable enough that I got lost or confused. The end of the novel felt a little abrupt, but I guess that has more to do with I was ready for the story to continue, despite the exiting climax.

If you’re looking for epic fantasy with fun storytelling and clever worldbuilding, check out A PLAGUE OF GIANTS.

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The Artwork Of Gary Choo

Gary Choo is a concept artist/illustrator based in Singapore. I’ve know Gary for a good many years ( 17, actually ), working together in animation studios in Singapore like Silicon Illusions and Lucasfilm. Gary currently runs an art team at Mighty Bear Games, but when time allows he also draws covers for Marvel comics, and they’re amazing –

The Art Of Gary Choo
The Art Of Gary Choo
The Art Of Gary Choo
The Art Of Gary Choo
The Art Of Gary Choo

To see more of Gary’s work or to engage him for freelance work, head down to his ArtStation.

The post The Art Of Gary Choo appeared first on Halcyon Realms – Art Book Reviews – Anime, Manga, Film, Photography.

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