Exciting times around here as we launch BOOK THREE in the Faerie Tales from the White Forest series (April 15) AND rebrand with a spanking new website. Coming soon to danikadinsmore.com How can you help? So glad you asked! … Continue reading
I am excited that I have decided to share my reflections on my writing development and crafting an academic identity over the years in my doctoral program! I hope this experience will be beneficial to you as much it will be to me! I invite you to share ideas, provide your insights, give comments on my writing and experiences please! I look forward to hearing from you!
First, I would like to start sharing some parts of my earlier writings about how I am crafting multiple cultural and academic identities:
Developing a positive identity as a professional scholar is an essential task for a doctoral student (Austin & McDaniels, 2006). Students who experience two different cultures especially with minority status, may feel caught between the dynamics of these cultures, and have a conflicting self identity, values, attitudes, beliefs, or loyalty to a particular cultural group, which may be problematic (Lee, 2006). Doctoral students, especially international students, need to be adequately prepared to navigate the full range of roles and identities that comprise academic discourses. Situated in a social and cultural perspective, the theory of multi-literacies suggests that people participate and interact through many modes of communication (e.g., email, blogs, twitter), and engage in specific academic and professional discourses. Moje and Luke (2009) argue that academic identity is shaped by certain kinds of discourses and literacy practices; in the same manner, the ways in which we communicate, and are engaged in discourses can have an impact on how we are recognized as human beings, and how we craft our identities especially for people who experience life as minorities on the basis of racial, ethnic, religious, or other social categories (Pufall-Jones & Mistry, 2010). This paper addresses my own continual journey towards crafting an academic identity through the lenses of biliteracy and multiliteracies. Nancy Hornberger defines biliteracy as a continuum: ‘any and all instances in which communication occurs in two (or more) languages in or around writing’ (Hornberger, 1990: 213); and the notion of continuum is intended to convey that although one can identify (and name) points on the continuum, those points are not finite, static, or discrete. In this paper, I discuss the significance of biliteracy, how living in constant state of transition and overlapping cultural representations between Turkey and US significantly shapes my self-awareness between two cultures. In turn, this self-awareness shapes how I participate in academic and professional activities and discourses, that contribute to my bicultural and biliterate academic identities.
Changing the perceptions about literacy and me as a literate person:
the purpose for this presentation:
I studied in an English medium university, in other words, a university that supported biliteracy. Biliteracy, as theoretically framed by Hornberger (1989), is viewed as a result of overlapping interactions between its contexts (i.e., micro-macro level, oral-literate, and the monolingual-bilingual levels). Although dimensions of bilingualism and literacy are expressed in polar opposites such as Ll versus L2, monolingual versus bilingual, oral versus literate, when biliteracy is considered, these continua are interrelated dimensions of a highly complex whole.
Starting my doctoral degree in the USA, I had to function as a biliterate person in an academic environment—I was from Turkey, but now living in the US. This made me question all my previous notions and definitions about literacy and biliteracy. In Turkey, in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts—literacy technically means “reading” and “writing”. However, as a biliterate international student, I realized that communicating in another language was not only about reading and writing for academic purposes, but also involved social and cultural matters. Being biliterate meant that I had to learn about the US culture which shapes my expression, and thinking, and seeing the world. As a doctoral student, I reflected on how I function and perform in specific discourses (as opposed to the contexts in which I use my native language), and constantly compared my literacy practices in these two cultures, the value people attached to these practices, and the ideologies that surround them.
How am I Redefining literacy?
When I was asked to define “literacy” in a doctoral course, at first I could not understand why the term needed to be redefined I understood it from a cognitive perspective as I had learned it in Turkey—reading and writing–and separated it from its social context. However, I realized from different class readings and discussions with participants from varied multi-cultural environments that different cultures value different literacy skills and that literacy cannot be divorced from the culture in which it is embedded. In Gee’s (1996) words, “people do not read and write to engage in abstract processes; rather they read and write particular texts of particular types, in particular ways because they hold particular values”. The way certain societies use a range of texts, including multimodal, can differ across cultures and their related contexts. My identity as an junior scholar began to emerge as I read and interacted with others about what literacy is, my own biliterate assumptions about language, and the possibilities of crafting an academic identity that was social, cultural, and multimodal.
Why do I embrace multiliteracies / multimodality as a research interest?
Brian Street (1984) argued that literacy practices depend on the context, and they are already embedded in an ideology and cannot be isolated or treated as neutral. Therefore, it made more sense to me to embrace “multimodality” and “multiliteracies” to frame my own research interests.
Multimodality refers to many modes that comprise the way people communicate, and multiliteracies refers to “the many and varied ways that people read and write in their lives” (Purcell-Gates, 2002, p. 376). A theory of multiliteracies considers agendas that advocate social change. Because my aim is to provide equal and democratic education for all, a theory of multiliteracies has a potential of cultivating biliterate identities by tapping in people’s cultural capital or “funds of knowledge” (Molls et al., 1992), while multimodality allows me to express meaning across modes (not just reading and writing). Thus, I can empower biliterate identities for myself as well as others.
Crafting my identity through conferences
When thinking about crafting my identity as a scholar, I have noted several understandings about theory and practice that have shaped my journey. Sociolinguists like Street and Gee suggest that literacies are more than a means for sharing information; they are intimately connected with identity, or what Gee calls Discourse. Discourses are identity kits that include not only spoken and written language and other means of symbolic expression, but also aspects of identity like dress, body language, and actions that signal underlying beliefs and values of a community. As such, I understand the multiplicity of cultural identities that are expressed through literacies, and my attendance at professional conferences. I have participated in local, national, and international conferences; each has its own discourse communities. Besides conveying the content of my presentation, I learn how scholars interact with participants through spoken language, when I should respond to speakers, and what types of questions participants ask. I also notice other communication such as dressing, gestures, and manners. I learn how people from diverse cultures negotiate different discourses and respect each other, thereby portray confident profiles in these intercultural and academic spaces.
A second way my academic identity is shaped is through my participation in scholarly organizations including Alpha Upsilon Alpha Honor Society (AUA), International Reading Association, Georgia TESOL, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Inc. (TESOL), American Educational Research Association (AERA), and Middle East Institute. For me, scholarship is fundamentally social. At GSU, AUA, which is a leadership organization, allows me to participate in a community of learners who provide me with a truly socialized environment for my scholarship. My active engagement with these professional communities reinforces my professional identity. For example, I review conference proposals, [YY2] and develop what Bonny Norton calls an “imagined identity” as a future editor of a well-known journal[YY3] . Also, my developing relationships with my academic advisor and faculty, friends, family, and academic networking sites online provide me the support for navigating through different cultures and forming a scholarly identity.
Shaping an academic writerly identity for publications:
Membership in organizations and taking opportunities that my advisor and other professors offer is a third way that help me shape an academic identity as a writer. For example, annually, we as members of AUA host an writing retreat to develop identities as scholarly writers. We are writing a manuscript that focuses on how AUA is cohesively aligned to doctoral requirements and serves as a vital support to students in the areas of scholarship, leadership, and service. I also work with my advisor and other professors on research and write towards publication. For example, I am the Media Facilitator for Global Conversation in Literacy Research (GCLR) research team[YY4] . In this role I edit and moderate seminars and write biographies for the website. In April 2014, I will moderate Brian Street’s seminar. This is a huge honor and contributes to shaping my academic and professional identity. Moreover, I write my own blog where I communicate with other professionals and receive feedback. I agree with Kirkup (2010) that “blogging [YY5] could play a useful role in professional development ” (p. 76). I reach an immediate audience from all around the world. I also participate in several ESL communities online where I share my resources. I realize that professional identities can be reinforced not only with real people in immediate, local educational settings, but also with virtual people in global platforms such as ELT and literacy communities online. In brief, I rely on multiple individuals for support beyond my academic advisors or peers. Participation in these discourse communities as a writer enriches my life, knowledge, and personal capacity but also that of those who are involved in the exchanges as well.
Improving my identity as a global and local worker through academic and personal connections:
Advisor support was associated with a stronger sense of belonging and academic self-concept (Cutin et al., 2013). My advisors often dispensed professional and socializing advice, and even emotional support for me. My constructive relationships with them have been key aspects of satisfaction in the doctoral program, and the development of my professional identity. They treated me as a junior colleague, not as a student. I was fortunate to work with two academic advisors who come from different cultural backgrounds, Korea and Bahamas, as they contributed to my local and global perspectives as a candidate teacher educator. For example, one of the advices that I received was to define myself and other non-native speakers as multilingual people rather than learners or teachers of English as a Second Language. I understood what my advisor meant when I read about the deficit perspectives associated with the term English as a Second Language. I realized that accepting English as my second language did not help gain more competent view of myself as a candidate teacher educator who would teach in English in a context different than my home culture. I questioned the dichotomies of non-native versus native speaker (Canagarajah, 2007). I decided that acquiring a multilingual identity was crucial for my success in America, which was part of the global community (Yi, 2013).
My second advisor taught me how I should recognize the power of language in both local and global contexts such as home and school if my goal was to contribute to democratic education (Tinker Sachs, upcoming). I understood that being successful cannot be achieved only by developing local identities but also by being shaped as a global worker. For example, one inspiring conversation with her took place when she described how she visited local communities such as immigrant parents, listened to their problems, identified what was powerful about them by being a good observer, and brought their stories to classroom, leaving the deficit lenses behind. I also learned that appreciation of differences in the local context does not mean that I needed to ignore global-mindedness in the world. I have a global identity as well because I recognized some similarities in various local communities. For example, I support culturally responsive pedagogies and curriculum like my two advisors and many other professors in the world. This recognition help improve my sense of belonging in academic communities. I have the ability to participate in a local conversation at one urban school in the US because I know, read and learn more about their culture. At the same time, I can take part in an international community, or a group with international perspectives, and share my ideas for the goal of social justice as I did in one of my classes this semester.
Apart from academic connections, my personal relationships reinforced my academic and cultural identity. I am married with an American, which helped better understanding of the target culture because I had a chance of discussing my confusions, tensions, or conflicts between Turkish and American culture with my husband. In addition, my personal connection with friends supports my journey. For example, I belong to a Facebook group whose members are all Ph.D students at the same program that I am enrolled at my university. In this “Critical friends group” (Franzak, 2002), we share our resources, ask each other questions, and give advice on how to progress with our schedule or the academic program. The theoretical foundation for Critical Friends Groups is that teachers belonging to a group learn to collaborate by participating in professional development activities such as examining student and teacher work (Franzak, 2002). Although we don’t review our academic work in this group, we still support each other by communicating about the issues of coursework, schedules, assignments, and any other subject related with social and academic life. In other words, through this critical group, I found a safe place where my voice joined with others to work through my own academic and social identity crisis.
Being an integrated scholar through academic and personal connections:
When I started my doctoral degree, education was only one part of my life; but now I understand that becoming a real scholar is living the scholarship in every aspect of life: personal, social, and academic. Accordingly, I have begun to see myself as an integrated scholar, which means that I maintain professionalism in every aspect of my life, and dedicate myself to a course of life-long learning, and advance the role of institutions that I work for in educating, serving, and inspiring the others.
In conclusion, I will continue trying on multiple professional selves to see how well they fit me. I acknowledge that becoming an educator and a role model for future scholars in my field is an evolving process. Identity formation is evolving and fluid as well. My aim is to be responsible, imaginative, insightful, rigorous, and committed in my social and academic roles. In light of research in how universities define the professions and multiple identities (Brint, 1994), hopefully, this paper will support and extend scholarship in the area of international students’ bicultural self-efficacy.
Austin, A. E., & McDaniels, M. (2006). Using doctoral education to prepare faculty to work within Boyer’s four domains of scholarship. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Analyzing faculty work and rewards: Using Boyer’s four domains of scholarship. New Directions for Institutional Research, No. 129. (pp. 51-65). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Brint, S. (1994). In an age of experts: The changing role of professionals in politics and public life. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Canagarajah, A. S. (2007). Lingua Frannca English, multilingual communities, and language acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 91: 923-939.
Franzak, J. K. (2002). Developing a teacher identity: The impact of critical friends practice on the student teacher. English Education, 34(4), 258-280.
Gee, J. P. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in Discourses. (2nd Ed.). London: Taylor & Francis.
Hornberger, N. (1989). Continua of biliteracy. Review of Educational Research, 59 (3), 271-296.
Kirkup, G. (2010). Academic blogging: academic practice and academic identity. London Review Of Education, 8(1), 75-84.
Moje, E. B., & Luke, A. (2009). Literacy and identity: Examining the metaphors in history and contemporary research. Reading Research Quarterly, 44(4), 415–437.
Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory Into Practice, (31)2, 132–141.
Norton, B. (2001). Non-participation, imagined communities, and the language classroom. In M. Breen (Ed.), Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research (pp. 159-171). Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Pufall-Jones, E., & Mistry, J. (2010). Navigating across cultures: Narrative constructions of lived experiences. Journal Of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research, 4(3), 151-167.
Purcell-Gates, V. (2002). Multiple literacies.. In B.J. Guzzetti (Ed.). Literacy in America: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice. (pp. 376-380). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO.
Street, B. V. (1984). Literacy in theory and practice. NY: Cambridge University press. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Tinker Sachs, G. (forthcoming). You are one of us. Forging the development of dialogic communities of practice in the Bahamas. In C. Leung, J. Richards & C. Lassonde (Eds.), International collaboration in literacy research practice, (Chapter 13). Information Age Publishing.
Yi, Y. (2013). Adolescent multilingual writer’s negotiation of multiple identities and access to academic writing: A case study of a Jogi Yuhak student in an American high school. Canadian Modern Language Review, 69(2), 207-231.
I have created a template class to deal with matrices, and would like to be able to make a derived class for square ones, as these have extra functions.
The template I have has three parameters, to set the size, and the type of entries:
`template <int rows, int cols, typename scalar>` `class matrix` `` `//members`
and I want to be able to have something like:
`template <int size, typename scalar>` `class matrix: public matrix <size,size,scalar>` `` `//extra members`
for square matrices, ideally with the same name so that I can declare them with the same syntax, and will give the extra functions where relevent.
Is it possible to do this? My attempt didn't work as it said I had too few arguments for the template, clearly still referencing the base class.
Dive into the next action-packed adventure of cartoonist Gavin Aung Than’s Super Sidekicks series. Where the real heroes are the superheroes sidekicks.
There are two crucial properties of foundations that are the best cover up for acne prone skin. It has to cover the pimples without looking like a piece of cake and make sure it doesn’t clog the pores, so breakouts don’t continue.
How to Select the Best Coverup for Acne Prone Skin
1. Try Not to Make the Acne Increase
Try looking for noncomedogenic cosmetics. This means they do not clog your pores. Make sure you do not use foundations that have denatured SD alcohol. These types are called isopropyl alcohol. They destroy the protective surface of your skin, and it also makes oily skin worse than it already is.
2. Check the Ingredients
Try getting a foundation that is liquid with a concentration of salicylic acid that is not high. This helps in the removal of too much oil and the removal of dead skin cells, working like a pore cleaner and to keep the pores clear.
3. Try Getting a Powder
A lot of dermatologists normally advise you get a powdered product over a liquid one for skin prone to acne. It is less likely to clog your skin, because the particles from the pigment are larger than those that are made of liquid. If you like ones that are made of liquid, then don’t use the ones with dewy finishes. Get something that is free of oil and not matte.
There are a lot of foundations that could be used as a cover-up and could help manage breakouts. Here is a list of options for the best cover up for acne prone skin.
5 Best Cover Ups for Acne Prone Skin
1. Bare Minerals’ Blemish Rescue Skin-Clearing Loose Powder Foundation
It is a powdered foundation from Bare Minerals, which offers salicylic acid, kaolin clay, acne-fighting zinc, and other ingredients like oat protein, which helps to calm irritation. It has been tested by different dermatologists and is a non-drying noncomedogenic.
2. Maybelline’s Fit Me Matte + Poreless Liquid Foundation Makeup
This helps in giving a skin-like coverage and buildable cover-up at an affordable price. It is an oil-free formula that is noncomedogenic and helps in covering imperfections and using a pore blurring finish and a soft matte. It also is available in a shade range that is diverse, so everyone could get what would work for them.
3. MAC Studio’s Fix Fluid Foundation SPF 15
Using a concealer that is too dark or too light most times increases the acne instead of reducing it. You should use a type of cover-up that is right for your skin. This is also created to make your skin look natural.
4. Jane Iredale’s Enlighten Concealer
Jane Iredale’s Enlighten Concealer is a cruelty-free concealer formulated for dark under-eye circles, coloration or bruising, as well as acne or scarring. It contains anti-irritant and antioxidant properties thanks to its key ingredients of algae extract, moringa seed oil, white Lilly extract, and more.
5. 100% Pure’s 2nd Skin Concealer
2nd Skin Concealer by 100% Pure is a creamy, lightweight concealer wand that’s convenient for travel. Stick it in your purse or gym bag for daily corrective touch-ups. It’s made from fruit and hydrating olive extract.
Today’s audio instalment is up over at http://ianhocking.com/Fiction_Flash/Fiction_Flash/Fiction_Flash.html.
1) Could you explain what you mean when you say criticism is a sin?
2) Why did Jesus not allow certain people to tell others about the healing they received from Him?
3) Can you explain where you can find allusions to Jesus in the book of Ecclesiastes?
4) Dr. McGee explains what he means when he says that believers are Catholic priests.
5) Can someone live without sin?
6) After death and before the resurrection, do we have intermediate bodies?
7) When we forgive do we also have to forget?
8) What is Shekinah Glory?
9) In John 10 Jesus quotes Psalm 82 which calls men gods. Does “gods” in this passage refer to teacher, judge, or prophet?
10) Was it Gods will for David to have many wives and concubines?
11) If someone strays from God does that mean that they were not saved?
(A continuation from the previous post) The Gray : Best music of 2013 Music saved my life this year. It was simply a great year for music. Just like last year I didn’t write a whole lotta reviews, but ended…
Choosing Kamala Harris as VP candidate would show that Biden believes in a multi-racial society as much as Obama did.
Donald J. Trump got elected as US President because millions of voters believed that he was the candidate best able to ensure prosperity for a country that had seen both an absolute as well as a relative decline in the incomes of the poor and much of the middle class. Rather than emotion, it was hard-nosed calculation which motivated most Trump voters to mark their choices during the 8 November 2016 ballot. If Trump could make billions of dollars for himself and his family, surely he could at the least make several thousand extra dollars for the average US citizen. Even the 45th President’s appointing of other wealthy citizens to key Cabinet posts did not raise the eyebrows of the less fortunate. They had, after all, made all the money they would ever need. Now the focus could be on the rest of society. The reality—that much of this money had been made on Wall Street and in corporate offices at the expense of the rest of society—did not figure very much in the public consciousness. During the 2016 polls, had there been a stark choice between Trump and Bernie Sanders, enough voters may have tilted towards the latter to get him elected as the first self-declared socialist ever to hold the world’s most high-profile leader (and still the most consequential, although that attribute may migrate to the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party). However, the Democratic Party, whose upper layers have been tended and lubricated by the wealthy behind a smokescreen of anti-millionaire rhetoric, closed ranks at the top to ensure through foul means more than fair that the always reliable (for mega donors) Hillary Clinton prevailed over Sanders, who quickly folded up and genuflected before the formidable Clinton machine. This time around as well, those with a genuine patina of fighters against mega privilege such as Elizabeth Warren or Kamala Harris were eclipsed in the Democratic Party presidential primaries, including by well-camouflaged backers of privilege such as the engaging Beto O-Rourke. In each primary, the party machine, still significantly under the influence of Bill and Hillary as a consequence of the subservience of Barack Obama to the Clintons once he secured the party nomination in the 2008 Presidential primaries, ensured that the votes of Bernie Sanders were suppressed in the mysterious and invisible manner of certain views being systematically weakened in number of hits by social media giants largely peopled by individuals playing at revolution through computer keyboards. Joe Biden, who had early on been identified by this columnist as a Clinton surrogate, seems to have locked in the nomination, denying it to Bernie Sanders or to either Warren or Harris. Should Biden get religion at 78, he would choose Warren or Harris as his running mate, but given the grip that the Clintons have long exercised on him, what is more likely is that a “safe” (for Wall Street and for corporate donors) albeit feisty in verbal jousts candidate will be chosen by the prospective Democratic Party candidate against Donald Trump, thereby making easier a second term for an individual ready to do almost anything so that the 3 November election ensures that he remain in the White House rather than go to jail, which is where Hillary Clinton would like to send him to repay Trump’s effective pardon of her influence-peddling activities over the years. There is not the faintest whiff of Prithviraj Chauhan and his fatal (to himself and to his people) generosity about the steely Hillary Clinton, who would have put both Indira Gandhi as well as Margaret Thatcher in the shade for ruthlessness, had she been elected about four years ago rather than Trump. The lady is formidable, brilliant and deadly in a way that Trump can never in practice be, for all his bluster.
Should Joe Biden, even before clinching the nomination some months later, choose Elizabeth Warren or Kamala Harris as his running mate, his chances of becoming the 46th President of the US would soar. He is known to be a person of integrity, as is his spouse and was son Beau. Son Hunter has a taste for the good life, and is somewhat careless about the ways in which he ensures such an outcome, being a “Goodwill Ambassador” for hire to companies in the Ukraine, China and elsewhere. Fortunately for him, much of the media in the US dislikes Trump so much that they are determined to publish whatever it takes to get Biden elected. Or not do, in the case of easily obtainable facts concerning the activities of Hunter Biden, who has been given almost a blank cheque by his father after the death of elder brother Beau as a consequence of illness. While the Trump team may unearth bucketfuls of dirt about Hunter, such topsoil is not missing in the case of some members of the extended family of Donald Trump, who have ignored the fact that only their businesses visibly doing badly during the term (or terms) of Trump will ensure both his political success as well as the avoidance of multiple enquiries into their own business dealings, especially if these be profitable. The success or failure of Joe Biden on 3 November will hinge to a considerable extent on the distance he is able to maintain between the “requests” of the Clinton machine and his actions, including on the selection of the Vice-Presidential candidate. This columnist believes that choosing Kamala Harris would show that Biden does not just talk about a multi-racial society but believes in it as much as Barack Obama did. Given his record in supporting several of the Clinton initiatives which sent hundreds of thousands of hapless African Americans to prison and brutalized them, or which ensured that greed prevailed over reason in the financial markets, Biden will need more than soothing speeches to make many believe that he means what he says. The problem the prospective nominee faces is that both Harris as well as Warren are toxic to Hillary Clinton and to the interests she has so ably (if not always openly) championed throughout much of her political career. Barack Obama was fortunate in 2008 in having Mitt Romney as his opponent in the 2012 elections. Neither the Christian right nor Middle America took to the somewhat aloof candidate, who was no match for Obama. But for Covid-19 and the aftershocks created by the panic measures taken to stop its spread, Trump would have been certain to get a second term. He is still a formidable candidate, despite a gaffe a day. Which is why Biden needs another feisty politician—of principle and not just rhetoric—to take on Trump and Mike Pence, who has shown a capacity for quiet leadership that would make him the inevitable Republican nominee in the 2024 elections. Joe Biden has the advantage of an idealistic wife who, in a very understated way, is as steely as Hillary. The question which may decide the fate of the 2020 polls will be whether he listens to Jill Biden or once again goes by the habits of decades and trots along obediently behind the Clinton bandwagon. Should that happen, Donald J. Trump will occupy 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW for four more years.